Journal of University Medical & Dental College 2022-06-01T07:15:37+00:00 Prof Dr. Muhammad Akram Malik Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of University Medical &amp; Dental College, JUMDC, is the official peer reviewed Journal of University Medical &amp; Dental College, constituent college of The University of Faisalabad. JUMDC is open access journal being published quarterly.<br><br>ISSN, 2221-7827<br>ISSN, 2310-5542</p> <p>Original research articles, review articles, practical updates, case reports, letter to editor of medical and allied health sciences are being evaluated by editorial board and peer reviewers before publication in the journal.</p> COVID-19 pandemic upshots and where will it lead us? 2022-05-25T09:35:53+00:00 Mukhtiar Baig Saba Tariq Sundus Tariq 2022-05-25T06:44:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Perceptions of dental students’ regarding anatomy learning and assessment in integrated curriculum adopted by Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Pakistan 2022-05-31T05:52:15+00:00 Shazia Muazam Anbreen Aziz Maryam Shan Shazia Imran Hina Kundi Resham Hafeez <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE</strong>: The integrated curriculum adopted by the university effects the learning process of dental students. They prefer selective study of specific objectives rather than developing a deeper understanding of anatomy. Thus, students’ perceptions would be helpful in improving curriculum delivery, at university level, for beneficial future clinical roles.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>A qualitative exploratory study in a dental college affiliated with regional medical university spread over three months. &nbsp;&nbsp;Second year BDS class (50 students) was purposively chosen excluding first year students. Fifteen item questionnaire was developed and distributed via Google form &nbsp;followed by inductive analysis.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:&nbsp; </strong>Forty-eight students (96%) responded. Seven themes and eighteen subthemes emerged. Three themes expressed students’ preference for group study, small group discussion and visual learning style. Content of anatomy was suggested to be divided in two years by few. In theme “Anatomy assessment weightage” majority consented on same number of multiple-choice questions of anatomy as other subjects as all found it difficult to prepare it in one day with other subjects. Most of them considered such anatomy assessment weightage to have a positive impact on their future practitioner role.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Dental students are satisfied with the content of anatomy in each block. Main concern raised is misalignment between anatomy assessment weightage and its delivered content. This drives students to do selective anatomy study in each block. This concern should be considered by university in redesigning future curriculum to equip students with necessary knowledge of anatomy required by dentists in their future roles.</p> 2022-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Experiences of infected health care team during first wave of COVID-19 at Hilal-e-Ahmer Hospital, Faisalabad 2022-05-31T05:53:10+00:00 Sumera Ehsan Nuzhat Ayesha Ayub Tehseen Aslam <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>COVID-19 has caused a very deep and intense effect on all persons irrespective of age and gender. It was especially a challenging fight for health professionals as they were dealing it from many aspects. All the infected health workers were facing many emotional and mental stresses, and at the same time, they were supposed to provide error free services at the hospital. To explore the experiences of infected Health Care Providers during COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong>&nbsp; The interview based qualitative descriptive research was conducted at Hilal-e Ahmar hospital Faisalabad, Pakistan. To get an in-depth idea about different experiences of the professionals, 15 Semi structured interviews were conducted during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. Convenient sampling was done by inviting all the infected members for the interviews. Purposive sampling was done, and a total of 15 interviews were conducted till the data was saturated. Participants gave their convenient time keeping in mind their easy duty days for the study, and they were interviewed in their offices.&nbsp; Interviews were transcribed, rechecked, and analyzed. Thematic analysis was done with narrations.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong>5 broader themes were generated with sub-themes. The themes were 1) Diagnosis of disease, 2) Disease impacts, 3) Social reaction, 4) Combating techniques for isolation period and, 5) Dilemmas during the quarantine period. The participants were diagnosed by PCR technique, and the diagnosis was associated with extreme feelings of denial, depression, anxiety, fear of the future and uncertainty. Most of the participants faced negative responses from society and experienced a social boycott.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The first wave of COVID-19 was a period of extreme stress and anxiety, especially for the health care providers working as the first line of defense against the disease. They not only suffer from the physiological effects of the disease but faced mental trauma and social stigmatization. Electronic media had a negative effect on the thought process of people.</p> 2022-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Molecular dissection of two Pakistani families segregating Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Type-I 2022-05-26T05:39:58+00:00 Farzana Majeed Atteaya Zaman Saadia Moazzam Muhammad Zeeshan Anwar Muhammad Akram Shahzad Momin Iqbal Syed Irfan Raza <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE:</strong> Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD1) is an autosomal recessive type of inherited disorder caused by total or partial deficiency of CD18 expression. LAD1 is characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections, in some cases delayed umbilical cord separation, delayed wound healing due to blockade in leukocyte migration to site of inflammation and infection. The present study involves genetic analysis of two unrelated families suffering from LAD1.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> In the present study, two separated and unrelated Pakistani families are included suffering from Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency type -1 (PAD1). After detailed clinical evaluation, whole blood samples were collected from patients, parents and available healthy siblings. Genomic DNA was extracted from all the blood samples, and using a specific primer all the coding <em>ITGB2</em> gene exons were PCR amplified.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The amplified products were sanger sequenced. DNA sequencing analysis revealed a nonsense mutation c.186C &gt; A, p.(Cys62*) in exon four and a missense mutation c.382G&gt;T, p.(Asp128Tyr) in exon five of the gene. The mutation is segregating in autosomal recessive pattern in the family.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Recurrent mutations on a specific locus (gene) changes the allele frequency from a healthy allele to a disease allele and hence play role in new genotype. This research study demonstrates the allelic heterogeneity of the <em>ITGB2</em> gene in Pakistani patients diagnosed with LAD1. The research findings in the present study suggest that every population should develop national registry of patients suffering from primary immune deficiencies and a mutation database for rare genetic disorders. This will facilitate early diagnosis and genetic counseling to the patient family.</p> 2022-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Management of Fournier’s Gangrene at postgraduate medical institute Sandeman provincial Hospital Quetta 2022-05-31T05:55:38+00:00 Anwar Lehri Muhammad Iqbal Khan Khan Riffat Arbab Lailama Shah Shabir Ahmed Lehri Hafsa Jaffar <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Fournier's Gangrene is a quick development of necrotizing, fulminant infection of the scrotum, perineum, and lower abdominal wall and can <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">&nbsp;</span>involve the groin. Synergic aerobic and anaerobic organisms can cause this disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the causes, complications and optimal treatment of Fournier’s Gangrene.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>A total of 150 patients were included. Fournier’s Gangrene was diagnosed clinically. Detailed clinical examination was performed, and the complications and modes of treatment were recorded. Calculation of descriptive statistics was done by the stratification and application of independent T-test and Chi-square test wherever applicable for post-stratification, considering p-value ≤0.05 as significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The mean age was 31.74±6.24 years. The most common presenting complaint was the dusky appearance of the overlying skin. In the diabetic group, (66)44% had intense genital pain and tenderness, while in the non-diabetic group (72)48% observed a dusky appearance of the overlying skin and (37)24.7% had morbid obesity. No significant association was found between mortality of study groups, their age groups and their duration of hospital stay.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Most common presenting complaint was the dusky appearance of the overlying skin. The anal abscess was the most common etiology, followed by a strangulated inguinal hernia. The mortality rate was 24%.</p> 2022-05-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Effects of Physical therapy Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence among Postnatal Women-A quasi experimental study 2022-05-31T05:56:26+00:00 Sabiha Arshad Iqra Waseem Tahir Mahmood Farwah Batool Abdul Salam <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>During delivery, stress incontinence develops due to weakness of pelvic floor muscles. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of physiotherapy among post-natal women having stress urinary incontinence.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> This Quasi-Experimental study was conducted on 40 post-natal women in the age of 25-40 years. The data was collected using a convenient sampling technique. After an informed consent, participants were assessed on the day of the visit, and pelvic floor muscle exercises [kegel exercise] were performed. First, they were assessed on 1<sup>st</sup>&nbsp; &nbsp;visit and the final assessment was made at end of treatment by using the same physical examination. The assessment was done on 1<sup>st</sup> visit and after 12 weeks, with 3-5 sessions/week. SPSS version 20.0 was used for analysis of data and paired–t test was used for comparing pre and post intervention.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:&nbsp; </strong>The current study comprised 22 (55%) participants with 25-32 years of age group and 18(45%) in 32-40 years of age. The results showed that 2 (5%) had no urine leakage, while 20(50%) had 3-4 times leakage, 25(62.5%) left their pads /garments during the treatment period. Of them 18(45%) had no restriction and 15(37.5%) had some restriction in daily activities and 19 (47.5%) have fair squeeze, 12 (30%) had a weak squeeze, p-value had shown statistically significant difference at p&lt;0.05, stating that Kegel exercise were found effective than routine interventions for the management of Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Kegel exercise (Pelvic floor muscle exercises) appeared to be an effective treatment protocol for postnatal women presenting with stress urinary incontinence with statistically significant differences on pre and post intervention analysis.</p> 2022-05-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Online social networking usage and frequency of Depression in Undergraduate University students 2022-05-31T06:01:22+00:00 Muhammad Ali Balouch Rukhsana Kausar Muhammad Ali Abbassi Saifullah Soomro Shahida Khan Muhammad Ibrahim Ansari <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE:</strong> Mental health is playing an important role in our daily life. Now a days depression is the second most common illness in the world. Online social networking is one of the risk factors to mental illness, and objective is to determine the usage of social networking sites (SNS) and level of depression among undergraduate students.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted at Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam- Sindh with simple random sampling through self-administrated questionnaire<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">s</span>. Sample size was calculated on a prevalence rate of 50%, students ranging from 17-28 years, using SNS were included while those having any chronic illness were excluded. Ethical approval was obtained from Health Services Academy Islamabad, anonymity confidentiality, and privacy was assured. SPSS version 20.0 was used, and chi-square was applied to find the association.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Out of 212 students, the respondents consisted mainly of male students n=165 (77.8%), among them, 52 (24.5%) students were of age 19 years and 76 (35.8%) were in first-year class. Results reveal that the frequently used SNS was Facebook 169 (79.7%). The students using these sites for more than 4 years were 28 (13.2%). Among the SNS users, 142(67%) were having moderate depression, while 9 (4.2%) had severe depression. Male students have more online friends (p &lt;0.001) and tend to login more times on SNS as compared to female students (p=0.023).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The usage of social networking sites is more among undergraduate university students, especially males. Most of the students suffered from moderate depression. There may be a link between SNS usage and depression among undergraduate university students.</p> 2022-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Frequency of dry socket among patients undergoing dental extraction presenting to Ayub Teaching Hospital 2022-05-31T06:00:05+00:00 Muhammad Shakeel Saeed Alaf Khan Saniya Sohail Muhammad Jamal Anam Javed Misbah Murtaza <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Tooth extraction is the most common procedure performed at the dental office. A very well recognized and recurrent post tooth extraction complication that dental surgeons face is Dry Socket (DO) also introduced as alveolar osteitis, localized osteitis, or simply alveolitis. The objective of this study is to ascertain the frequency of dry socket among patients undergoing dental extraction at Ayub Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad for six months. A sample size of 203 patients was predetermined using WHO a calculator. Patients of either gender from 18 to 65 years were selected. Following the standard extraction technique, detailed postoperative instructions were given. The patients were educated about the symptoms of dry socket and were requested to report immediately if he/she felt any of the said symptoms. Those patients that reported dry socket, were identified, and their data was noted on structured proforma. Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used to analyze the data obtained.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The Mean age recorded in present study was 35±12.00. Gender distribution showed that 155 (76.35%) patients were male and 48 (23.64%) patients were female. Mean number of days elapsed for dry socket was 5<u>+</u>0.57 Frequency of dry socket recorded was 12 (05.91%) patients.</p> <p><strong>CONLCUSION</strong>: In this study, the results collected were found to be statistically insignificant on the accounts of trends such as female preponderance and dry socket distribution posteriorly in the mandible. Our study was in accordance with the studies in literature.</p> 2022-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Effectiveness of Wobble Board Exercises on Dynamic Balance among Undergraduate Students 2022-06-01T07:15:37+00:00 Ushna Yalnaz Usman Sarwar Sumair Quresh Hafiz Sulman Saeed Imran Manzoor Nusrat Rasheed <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: &nbsp;</strong>Control of posture and balance is vital in mobility. Board exercise provides information about the motor strategies associated with muscle activation patterns that result when a person is standing on a wobble board surface that unexpectedly translates or tilts, which stimulates proprioception on the ankle.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>This study recruited 37 Undergraduate medical students of Allied health sciences (including males and females) of age between 17 to 25 years, conducted at skill lab of Shalamar Institute of Health Sciences. It is a Pre-test, Post-test Quasi-Experimental study in which balance was assessed by performing SEBT while maintaining single-limb stance. After 2 weeks of training, a dynamic balance was reassessed using Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS</strong>: A total of 37 patients are included in this study with the age of 22.0±1.65 years and BMI 20.9±3.02 are considered. The study includes 15 male and 22 female patients. This study shows significant differences in Pre-SEBT and Post-SEBT values of legs as p-value &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>There were significant differences in Pre-exercising and Post-exercising SEBT. Study shows that wobble board-based rehabilitation training has a positive impact on improving balance of participants.</p> 2022-05-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College An enlarged congenital dermoid cyst under the floor of mouth; a rare entity 2022-05-31T06:10:36+00:00 Muhammad Hamza Rana Muhammad Saleem <p>Dermoid cysts are rare congenital anomalies that arise due to the retention of germinal epithelium. A 26-year-old man was admitted for having complaints of a large, painless, soft sublingual mass with dysphagia and snoring. After general and systemic examination, the patient underwent surgical resection via a cervical approach revealing a (10*7 cm) cyst. Treatment of these sublingual cysts is surgical resection depending upon the size of the tumor.</p> 2022-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College Long follow-up of Multiple Recurrent Calcific Masses–A rare case report of Hyperphosphatemic Familial Tumoral Calcinosis 2022-05-31T06:09:27+00:00 Saad Ahmed Ayesha Saeed Shafique Farooq Zeeshan Yaqoob Fatima tul Zohra Muhammad Waqas <p>Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is an autosomal recessive benign condition of dysregulated phosphate metabolism (biallelic mutation in GLANT3, KLOTHO or FGF23) due to deficiency or resistance of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 resulting in deposition of large amount of ectopic calcium salts in periarticular soft tissues. We present a 21-year male with multiple recurrent masses around both hips, feet, left knee, and left elbow. His serum inorganic phosphate levels and ratio of renal tubular reabsorption rate of phosphate to corrected glomerular filtration rate were markedly elevated. Medical treatment to lower serum phosphate levels by placing him on tablet sevelamer hydrochloride and acetazolamide and surgical excision of the periarticular masses lead to disease remission. At 4 years follow up he has no recurrence and his functional scores (SF 36 and Harris Hip Score) have tremendously improved. Tumoral calcinosis, though rare must be kept in mind as a differential in abnormal calcific masses and with good radiological and laboratory support can be diagnosed early.</p> 2022-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University Medical & Dental College