Journal of University Medical & Dental College 2021-09-16T10:35:01+00:00 Editor, Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of University Medical &amp; Dental College, JUMDC, is the official peer reviewed Journal of University Medical &amp; Dental College, constituent college of The University of Faisalabad. JUMDC is open access journal being published quarterly.<br><br>ISSN, 2221-7827<br>ISSN, 2310-5542</p> <p>Original research articles, review articles, practical updates, case reports, letter to editor of medical and allied health sciences are being evaluated by editorial board and peer reviewers before publication in the journal.</p> IMPACT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON MEDICAL EDUCATION, AN EXPERIENCE AT UNIVERSITY MEDICAL AND DENTAL COLLEGE 2021-09-08T04:08:20+00:00 Sundus Tariq Saba Tariq Akram Malik 2021-08-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College MEDICAL EDUCATOR'S NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR AND ITS IMPACT ON STUDENTS AND EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 2021-09-16T10:35:01+00:00 Anbreen Aziz Farzana Majeed Saadia Muneer Malik <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Nonverbal communication has been overlooked in medical education. The purpose of this study was to explore student-teacher perceptions regarding impact of nonverbal behavior of medical educators on educational environment.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> A qualitative exploratory study was conducted among purposively chosen final year students (n=150) and medical teachers (n=73) from three dental colleges of Islamabad. A web-based survey concerning three domains of kinesics (Facial expressions, Gestures, Head movement and postures) was developed and validated before execution. Comparison of participant’s responses to closed-ended questions was done by applying Fisher’s Exact Test and open-ended questions were thematically analyzed.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Response rate of students and teachers was 46% and 63% respectively. Five out of nine closed-ended questions gave statistically significant difference among student’s and teacher’s responses (p≤0.05). Twenty-seven subthemes emerged from three domains of kinesics. Students revealed that happy mood of their teachers reduces boredom in the classroom and a teacher’s smile lets them freely express anything, whereas anger produces fear among them. According to the educators a happy instructor inspires students to study and makes the environment friendly and an undemanding smile helps build a rapport with students. Moreover, positive gestures used by teachers encourage students to clarify concepts and upright posture brings energy and motivation to the classroom.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>A teacher’s nonverbal behavior has a profound effect on educational environment. A smile on a teacher’s face creates a friendly and fearless environment whereas anger creates barriers to communication. A happy teacher can generate a pleasant and motivating learning environment.</p> 2021-08-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College COMPARISON OF ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS BETWEEN OBESE MALE PARTICIPANTS WITH AND WITHOUT OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA 2021-09-03T05:57:52+00:00 Shagufta Khaliq Mudassar Ali Roomi Muniza Saeed Komal Iqbal Shaheena Naz Huma Hussain <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>The most common risk factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea includes: Obesity and increased neck circumference in male gender. The objective of the study was to compare the anthropometric parameters between obese male participants with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:&nbsp; </strong>Study was conducted at Department of Physiology, Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lahore during 24 August 2014 to 26 May 2015. Obese males (n=64) with body mass index (BMI) &gt;25kg/m<sup>2 </sup>and aged 20-45 years were recruited by convenience sampling. Screening of OSA was made by two subjective tools: STOP BANG Questionnaire, and Berlin Questionnaire while final diagnosis was made by overnight portable pulse oximetry. Study population was divided into two groups. Group-I comprised of 32 obese males with OSA. Group II had 32 obese males without OSA. BMI, neck circumference, and waist circumference were measured by standard methods.Comparison of variables was done between the groups by Mann-WhitneyUtest and t-test.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:&nbsp; </strong>BMI was higher in group-I than in group-II (p<em>=</em>0.004). Median BMI for group-I was 30.83 (28.16–32.80) and for group-II was 27.99 (26.59–30.08) Kg/m<sup>2</sup>. A significantly higher neck circumference (p&lt;0.001) was present in group-I (41.95±2.40cm) than group-II (39.66±2.07cm). Moreover, significantly higher median waist circumference (p&lt;0.001) was present in group I (107.5cm) &nbsp;as compared to group-II (98.5cm).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Anthropometric parameters (BMI, neck circumference, and waist circumference) are higher in obese individuals with OSA as compared to obese males without OSA.</p> 2021-08-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College COVID-19 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND PRACTICES BETWEEN PAKISTANI MEDICAL AND NON-MEDICAL STUDENTS 2021-09-04T05:49:50+00:00 Bushra Suhail Ayesha Masood Javaria Baig Sara Mukhtar Sarah Aftab Tahir Jamil <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>This study investigated medical and non-medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and preparedness regarding COVID-19 pandemic, to groom volunteers and future healthcare providers in a better way.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>This cross-sectional study was completed from April to May 2020 during the first wave of COVID-19. An online questionnaire was distributed using internet and social media (SM). The questionnaire was composed of several parts concerning to demographic data, knowledge, attitude, and practices.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> This study included 1851 students [1041(56.54% medical, 810(43.46%) non-medical students)]. Medical students had significantly better knowledge about the contagious nature, spread and treatment of coronavirus. Non-medical students showed more risky behavior compared to medical students (p = 0.005). The use of masks and the frequency of handwashing was better among medical students as compared to non-medical students (p&lt; 0.001; p&lt; 0.014, respectively). The odds ratio indicates that students of the age group 21-25 years (45%) and medical students (75%) were more likely to have a positive attitude.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>This study revealed good knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practices towards COVID-19 among medical students. Still, a minority of participants from both groups revealed misconceptions and relatively poor conceptual knowledge regarding the disease.</p> 2021-08-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College BENEFITS OF EARLY POST-ERCP LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY: A SINGLE CENTRE PROSPECTIVE STUDY 2021-09-03T05:59:27+00:00 Farhan javed Saira Saleem Ayesha Rehman Faiza Wattoo Nadia Bano Nazim Hayat <p><strong>ABSTRACT:</strong></p> <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) following Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography<strong> (</strong>ERCP) is associated with an increased risk of complications. ERCP is associated with increased incidence of complications during LC. Surgery may be performed in same anesthesia with ERCP or up to 6 weeks later. We aimed to determine the benefits of performing LC within 72hrs of ERCP.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>After institutional ethical approval this prospective cross-sectional study was performed at Madinah Teaching Hospital Faisalabad from April 2019 to June 2020. By performing convenience sampling, all patients undergoing LC after uneventful ERCP in our hospital were included. Study population was divided based on interval between ERCP and Cholecystectomy; Group-A had LC within 72hrs of ERCP, Group B had LC in same hospital stay after 72hrs and Group-C patients were discharged after ERCP and readmitted for LC. Data was collected using custom designed questionnaire, tabulated using Microsoft Excel 2016 and subjected to statistical tests to compare outcomes. Primary outcome was incidence of complications, while operative time, hospital stay and cost were considered as secondary outcomes. p-value of &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Total 75 patients were included in study, 32 in Group-A, 20 in Group-B and 23 in Group-C. Average age was 44.987 ± 14.819 and study population was predominantly female (86.67%). Complication rate, duration of hospital stay and average cost were less in Group A as compared to other groups (p&lt;0.05). Mean operative time in 3 groups was similar.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>LC within 72hrs after ERCP provides superior results in terms of fewer complications, shorter hospital stays and lesser cost.</p> 2021-08-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS, AN EXPERIENCE AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL 2021-09-03T06:00:21+00:00 Lailama Shah Shahzada Amir Muhammad Baber Shabir Ahmed Lehri Muhammad iqbal Khan Ibrahim Baloch Riffat Arbab <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Surgical site (SSI) infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality in admitted patients worldwide. The objective is to determine the incidence of surgical site infection in General Surgical ward of tertiary care hospital.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>Analytical cross-sectional study conducted at Department of General Surgery, Bolan Medical College/ Post-Graduate Medical Institute Quetta (PGMI) for a period of one year from 1<sup>st </sup>August 2019 to 31<sup>st</sup> July 2020.&nbsp; Descriptive statistics were used to present social economics, factors related to surgery and surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis received. Chi square test was used for checking association between infections and different factors keeping p≤ 0.05 as significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 1500 patients underwent surgery, of which 500 (33.33%) patients were operated as elective cases and 1000 (66.66%) cases as emergency. Out of total 600 (40%) patients developed Surgical Site Infection (SSI). Risk associated with higher incidence of SSI was found to be age (30-45 years) and Diabetes mellitus (uncontrolled diabetes in perioperative period). Postoperatively obesity was noted to be having significant effect with p=0.002, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score having p-value 0.045, hospital stay with p&lt;0.001 and surgical type and previous surgical history with p&lt;0.001, were as duration of surgery was having &lt;0.001.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Prevention of SSI’s requires a multipronged approach with emphasis on optimizing preoperative issues, adhering to strict protocols during the intraoperative period and addressing and optimizing metabolic and nutritional status in post-operative period.</p> 2021-08-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN FEMALE MEDICAL STUDENTS RESIDING IN HOSTEL, A SINGLE-CENTER STUDY 2021-09-03T06:01:34+00:00 Humayun Suqrat Hasan Imam Uzma Sagheer Tahir Ismail Muhammad Khalid Saddiqui <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Osteopenia is a condition in which bone mineral density (BMD) is decreased. If not timely prevented, it can be aggravated to severe osteoporosis and a risk for fractures. Our objective was to find out the frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis in female medical students residing in hostel of Punjab Medical College Faisalabad.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>A Cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaqat and Fatima hall of Punjab Medical College Hostel, Faisalabad from 1<sup>st</sup> June 2014 to 31<sup>st</sup> August 2014 after ethical review committee approval. By using non probability convenient sampling technique, 212 female students of MBBS residing in Punjab Medical College Hostel were included in study. Predesigned questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed by using 17 version of SPSS.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Out of 212 females, the age of 70 (33%) females was &lt;20 years, the age of 80 (38%) females was 21-22 years and 62 (29%) females was ≥ 23 years. The frequency of osteoporosis was 81(38%), osteopenia was 123 (58%) and normal females were only 8 (4%). In relation to regular exercise, significant association was observed with p &lt;0.001.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis was high among female medical students. To address this serious public health issues, health education should be provided.</p> 2021-08-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College EFFICACY OF TAMSULOSIN IN PATIENTS WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA IN TERMS OF TRIAL WITHOUT CATHETER, A RANDOMIZED CONTROL TRIAL 2021-09-03T10:32:10+00:00 Farhan Khan Usman Qamar Muhammad Saifullah Muhammad Sheraz Javed Ahsan Ali Arain Muhammad Sohail Murli Lal <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent cause of voiding problems in older males and is most commonly associated with acute urological complications, most important of which is acute urinary retention (AUR). α1- antagonists are the treatment of choice for the management of patients with BPH. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin for the treatment of patients with AUR due to BPH in terms of trial without catheter (TWOC).</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY</strong>: This randomized control trial was conducted in a Urology Section, Department of Surgery, SIUT Karachi, from 21-12-2016 to 20-06-2017. Our study included 136 patients who presented AUR due to BPH as per selection criteria. Patients were randomized into two groups. Group A patients received tamsulosin (0.4 mg), and group B patients received placebo drug immediately after insertion of Foley catheter. The success of TWOC was evaluated after 3 days of medical treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v20.0.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The mean age of the study patients was 59.45 <u>+</u> 8.05 years. The mean duration of BPH disease was 15.39 <u>+</u> 6.84 months. There were 33 (48.5%) patients in the tamsulosin group in which TWOC was successful and only 22 (32.4%) patients in placebo group in which TWOC was successful (<em>p</em>-value 0.04). There was no effect of age and duration of BPH disease on the outcome of this study.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Tamsulosin is effective for the treatment of patients with AUR due to BPH.</p> 2021-08-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College VARIETY OF DRUGS SOLD WITHOUT PRESCRIPTION FOR COMMONLY PRESENTING COMPLAINTS IN RURAL AND URBAN PHARMACIES OF FAISALABAD DISTRICT 2021-09-03T10:11:40+00:00 Muhammad Hamza Rana Muhammad Husnain Muhammad Hamza Iqbal Noor-i-Kiran Naeem Muhammad Usman Yasir Yaqoob <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>Pharmacies play an important role in provision of health care to the community.The objective of the study was to explore the reasons for a variety of drugs sold without prescription for commonly presenting complaints in Rural and Urban Pharmacies of Faisalabad District.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>This explanatory sequential mixed method design involved workers from twenty-five pharmacies from urban and rural areas of Faisalabad from February to July 2020. After obtaining informed consent, fifty pharmacy workers filled a pre-designed questionnaire (followed by twenty-five semi-structured, individual, face-to-face interviews. Quantitative data was analyzed via SPSS software and transcribed interviews were organized manually for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Response rate was 76.2%. As reported by the pharmacists,40% and 90% of urban and rural population respectively came to pharmacies for over-the-counter drugs. Fifty percent belonged to middle class among urban and 70% belonged to rural population. Data analysis led to formation of 36 codes, 6 subthemes and 3 themes. Out of the four reasons quoted by the pharmacists (time constraints, lack of basic facility locally, financial constraints, and myths/fear of going to doctor), there was a statistically significant difference for rural population going directly to pharmacies because of financial constraints.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong>:</p> <p>Lack of education and financial constraints are the leading influential factors for people taking over-the-counter drugs in both rural and urban population, with time constraints being at the top list among urban population. Robust policies and public health care programs can lead to public awareness at large and can help in creating an environment of health care provision with MINIMAL RISKS.</p> 2021-08-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College NITAZOXANIDE IN TREATMENT OF ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN: A SINGLE CENTER STUDY 2021-09-03T10:14:13+00:00 Aneeqa Adnan Abdul Ahad Jamshaid Muhammad Azhar Farooq Tehreem Fatima Muhammad Ahsan Jahangir <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; </strong><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> &nbsp;As Rota virus leads to significant morbidity in children 2 months to 5 years, this study was done to observe the effect of one dose of nitazoxanide on the total duration of rotavirus diarrhea. The primary objective was to evaluate the reduction in the mean duration of viral diarrhea in children after administration of first dose of Nitazoxanide.</p> <p><strong>METHODLOGY: </strong>This descriptive study was done in the Department of Pediatric Medicine Unit I, Mayo Hospital, Lahore from Jan 2016 to June 2016 after approval from the ethical review committee. Sample size calculated was 175 using WHO sample size calculator. Patients of 4–5 years were given 200 mg nitazoxanide twice daily for 3 days; 100 mg nitazoxanide was given twice daily to 12–47 months age group, and patient of &lt;12 months age were given 7.5 mg/kg twice day along with routine care and were followed 12 hourly till the passage of normally formed stools. Duration of diarrhea was recorded.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> &nbsp;Out of 175 cases, 58.9% (n=103) were between 2-36 months age while 41.2% (n=72) were 37-60 months age, mean<u>+</u>SD was calculated as 35.06+13.34 months, mean reduction in duration of rotavirus diarrhea in children after administration of first dose of Nitazoxanide was recorded as 32.85<u>+</u>2.32 hours.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong>&nbsp;With the use of nitazoxanide along with routine care for rotavirus diarrhea children, the mean duration of rotavirus diarrhea was reported to be less than 1.5 days.</p> 2021-08-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College COMPARISON OF EFFICACY OF INJECTABLE STEROIDS VERSUS CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT FOR DE QUERVAINS’S TENOSYNOVITIS 2021-09-03T10:29:08+00:00 Nasim Ilyas Fouzia Hanif URDUKHAN@YAHOO.COM Rajesh Kumar Panjwani Sheikh Kashif Rahim Asma Abdul Qadeer Abdul Hameed <p><strong>BACKGROUND &amp; OBJECTIVE: </strong>De Quervain's tenosynovitis is tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons, occurs due to chronic overuse of the wrist and hand. To compare effectiveness of steroid injection with conservative management of De Quervains’s tenosynovitis.</p> <p><strong>METHODOLOGY:</strong> Randomized prospective study was conducted at the various private orthopedic clinic across Rawalpindi district, along with collaboration of community medicine department, Rawal Institute of health sciences, Islamabad. The study population was divided into two groups, i.e., group A and group B. Group A was given inj. corticosteroid and group B was given conservative management. The severity of pain (Visual analogue scale) and Finkelstein test were recorded on baseline and after 3 weeks follow up.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Our study included 96 diagnosed cases of de Quervains tenosynovitis on a positive Finkelstein test; 48 were given corticosteroid injection and 48 were conservatively treated. The mean age in corticosteroid’s injection group was 34.76<u>+</u>6.95 years whereas the mean age in conservative management group was 31.7<u>+</u>8.91 years. Post-intervention 13, 29 patients had a positive Finkelstein test in corticosteroid and conservative groups respectively. Although the difference in pre intervention pain score between the two groups was not statistically significant but significantly lesser pain scores in the corticosteroid group; (p= 0.00).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Steroid injection produced better results in terms of relief in pain and negative Finkelstein test as compared to conservative treatment.</p> 2021-08-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College ACTIVITIES FOR PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN ISOLATION OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2021-09-03T10:20:32+00:00 Usama Bin Yar <p>Disability is one of a major health problem and billions of disables are suffering in these days of the coronavirus epidemic. As every individual has confined himself in quarantine including disable people. And on the other hand, most importantly people suffering from disabilities are under-going compromised rehabilitation, which ultimately has an adverse effect not only on their health but also on mental health. So, to compensate for their physiological loss, it is necessary to guide the disable community about their health and especially maintaining it through exercise as it is a major healthcare concern nowadays. To overcome such healthcare issues, especially in the case of disabled population, the main aim is to recommend a set of exercises and physical activities to remain fit and active in isolation. The exercises are suggested for amputees, handicapped and bedridden patients. Doing exercise will not only maintain the physical health of disable ones but also improve mental health. Mental health is more important for disable people as they are emotionally sensitive and weak health-wise.</p> 2021-08-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College A RARE COMPLICATION POTT’S PUFFY TUMOR TREATED WITH FRONTOETHMOIDECTOMY: A CASE REPORT 2021-09-03T10:22:52+00:00 Muhammad Hamza Rana Muhammad Saleem <p>Untreated or undiagnosed frontal sinusitis develops as a subperiosteal abscess in the frontal bone named Pott’s puffy tumor (PPT). Pott’s puffy tumor is a rare complication that needs surgical excision. In this communication, we report a 50-year-old woman presenting with typical signs and symptoms of PPT. CT-Scan and X-ray imaging are the gold standards to measure the extent of tumor and involvement of structures, if any.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-08-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University Medical & Dental College